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A

Antioxidant
A special group of vitamins, minerals, and other compounds that counteract the damage done to cells by oxidation. Oxidation is thought to be partially responsible for the effects on aging and for certain diseases. Antioxidants are perhaps among the most important nutrients, although it is a misnomer to refer to them as nutrients as it they are really electron donors, as they help protect against the effects of free radicals. Examples of antioxidants include vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids, zinc and selenium.

Atherosclerosis
a type of artery disease characterized by formations of plaques along the inner walls of the arteries, which narrows the lumen of the artery and restricts blood flow to the tissues it supplies.



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Balance
Equilibrium, homeostasis

Beta cells
Beta cells are found in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. They produce and release insulin.

Body mass index (BMI)
an index of a person’s weight in relation to height determined by dividing the weight (in kgs) by the square of the height (in metres.)

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body



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Cardio vascular disease (CVD) (also sometimes referred to as coronary artery disease or coronary heart disease)
A general term for all diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) is the main cause of cvd. When the arteries that carry blood to the heart muscle become blocked, the heart suffers damage know as coronary heart disease (CHD).

Carotenoids
Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments synthesized by plants. The most common carotenoids in Western diets are alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene. The biological effects of carotenoids in humans are related to their antioxidant activity and non-antioxidant activities.

Central obesity
excess fat around the middle. Aka big belly, fat around the middle, abdominal fat, abdominal adiposity, visceral adiposity:

Chronic diseases
long duration degenerative diseases characterized by deterioration of body organs. Examples include heart disease, diabetes and cancer.


Coronary heart disease (CHD) also referred to as cardiovascular disease
A condition that occurs when the build up of cholesterol and fat in the arteries cause them to become too narrow and blocks the flow of blood.



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Diabetes
A condition in which the body is not able to make or use the hormone insulin properly, causing high blood sugar levels. High blood sugar levels can lead to many complications, like nerve and blood vessel damage, coronary heart disease, amputations, blindness and kidney damage.

Diabetes mellitus (DM)
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that arises when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin produced. There are two basic forms of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. People with type 1 diabetes do not produce enough insulin. People with type 2 diabetes produce insulin but cannot use it effectively.

Diabetes complications
Diabetes complications are acute and chronic adverse consequences for health caused by diabetes. Chronic complications include retinopathy (eye disease), nephropathy (kidney disease), neuropathy (nerve disease), cardiovascular disease (disease of the circulatory system), foot ulceration and amputation.



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Epidemiology
The study of the occurrence and distribution of health-related states or events in specified populations, including the study of the determinants influencing such states, and the application of this knowledge to the control of health problems.

Essential nutrients
Nutrients a person must obtain from food because the body can not make them for itself in sufficient quantity to meet physiological needs, also called indispensable nutrients. About 50 nutrients are known to be essential for human beings.


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Glucose
The main sugar the body produces from proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Glucose is the major source of energy for living cells and is carried to each cell through the bloodstream. However, the cells cannot use glucose without the help of insulin.



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HbA1c
Glycosylated haemoglobin A1c or glycated hemoglobin. A blood test that assesses glucose levels.

High blood sugar
A condition in which the glucose (sugar) level in the blood reaches levels higher than normal.  Often a sign of diabetes or pre-diabetes. Also referred to as hyperglycemia

High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol
A lipoprotein that helps remove cholesterol from the blood, decreases fat build up in the arteries, and actually reduces the risk of coronary heart disease.  Often referred to as "good" cholesterol.

Homeostasis
the maintenance of constant internal conditions such as blood chemistry, temperature, and blood pressure by the body’s control systems. A homeostatic system is constantly reacting to external forces so as to maintain the limits set by the body’s needs.

Hyperglycaemia
A raised or excess level of glucose in the blood. For diabetes this can be a sign that diabetes is out of control. It occurs when the body does not have enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it does have to turn glucose into energy. Signs of hyperglycaemia are great thirst, dry mouth and need to urinate often. Also referred to as high blood sugar.

Hypoglycaemia
Too low a level of glucose in the blood, or an abnormal decrease of sugar in the blood. This can occur when a person with diabetes has injected too much insulin, eaten too little food, or has exercised without extra food. A person with hypoglycaemia may feel nervous, shaky, weak, or sweaty, and have a headache, blurred vision and hunger. People without diabetes can also have hypoglycemia as a result of not eating, or eating too little food or fast releasing carbohydrates or post exercise. Also referred to as reactive hypoglycaemia and low blood sugar.



I

IFG = impaired fasting glucose (IFG)
IFG is a category of higher than normal blood glucose, but below the diagnostic threshold for diabetes after fasting (typically after an overnight fast). For a full definition see the WHO diagnostic criteria (www.who.int/diabetes). People with IFG are at increased risk of developing diabetes.

IGT = impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)
IGT is a category of higher than normal blood glucose, but below the diagnostic threshold for diabetes, after ingesting a standard amount of glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test. For a full definition see the WHO diagnostic criteria (www.who.int/diabetes). People with IGT are at increased risk of developing diabetes.

Incidence
Incidence indicates how often a disease occurs. More precisely, it corresponds to the number of new cases of a disease among a certain group of people for a certain period of time.

Insulin
A hormone whose main action is to enable body cells to absorb glucose from the blood and use it for energy. Insulin is produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. 

Insulin resistance
Insulin resistance condition in which cells no longer respond well to insulin, basically a reduced sensitivity to insulin by the body’s cells. The body responds by secreting more insulin into the bloodstream in an effort to reduce blood glucose levels. Dietary modification, Exercise, weight loss, and certain medications may reduce insulin resistance.

Islets of Langerhans
Named after Paul Langerhans, the German scientist who discovered them in 1869, these clusters of cells are located in the pancreas. They produce and secrete hormones that help the body break down and use food. There are five types of cells in an islet including beta cells, which produce insulin.



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Low blood sugar
Abnormal decrease of sugar in the blood. Also referred to as hypoglycaemia

Low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol
A lipoprotein that increases the build up of fat and cholesterol on artery walls, increasing the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Often called "bad" cholesterol.



M

Metabolic syndrome (MetS)
A syndrome marked by the presence of three or more of a group of factors: elevated blood pressure (hypertension), central obesity (abdominal or visceral obesity), elevated fasting blood glucose (pre diabetes: impaired glucose tolerance, or impaired fasting glycemia, insulin resistance) elevated triglycerides, low HDL, High LDL (dyslipidemia) that are linked to a increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. MetS, then, refers to a ‘cluster’ of factors usually found in the same person that are associated with an increase risk of cardio vascular disease and diabetes.

Monounsaturated fats
Fats that help to lower blood cholesterol if used in place of saturated fats. Healthy sources include avocados as well as olive, peanut, sesame, canola oils. Like all fats, monounsaturated fats are high in calories. If you increase the amount of monounsaturated fats you eat, be mindful of how much food you eat overall, so you don't gain weight.

Myocardial infarction
A blockage of a blood vessel in the heart that leads to the death of some of the heart tissue. Also called a heart attack.



N

Nutrients
Chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural materials, and regulatory agents to support growth, maintenance, and repair the body’s tissues. Nutrients can also reduce the risk of some diseases.

Nutrition
The science of foods, nutrients, and the other substances that they contain and their actions within the body. Based on key sciences: physiology, anatomy, biochemistry and microbiology. Broader definitions include the social, economic, cultural and psychological implications of food and eating.

Nutritional assessment
a comprehensive evaluation of an individual’s nutritional status, completed by a qualified nutrition therapist, using health, family, socioeconomic, drug and diet histories, anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests.

Nutritional programme
A plan that translates nutritional assessment information into a strategy for meeting a client’s nutrition and nutrition education needs to address their health concern.



O

Omega-3 fatty acids
A type of fat that is found in flaxseed, soybean, grape seed and fish oils. May protect the blood vessels of the heart and the rest of the body from injury.

Osteoporosis
A condition characterized by the loss of bone mass. Occurs when new bone is not created as quickly as old bone is broken down. Leads to a loss of bone tissue, brittleness, and a higher risk of fracture.



P

Pancreas
The pancreas is an organ situated behind the lower part of the stomach which produces insulin.

Phytochemicals
Non nutrient compounds found in plant derived foods that have biological activity in the body. Phyto = plant

Polyunsaturated fats
Fats that can improve blood cholesterol levels and lower the risk of heart disease. Major sources include: oil-based salad dressing, fatty fish, as well as safflower, sunflower, corn, and soybean oils. Like all fats, polyunsaturated fats are high in calories. If you increase the amount of polyunsaturated fats you eat, be mindful of how much food you eat overall, so you don’t gain weight.

Prevalence
The proportion of individuals in a population who at a particular time (be it a point in time or time period) have a disease or condition. Prevalence is a proportion and not a rate.

Prevention
The elimination of causes of disease from the population so that the risk of disease is either reduced (as in the case of many infectious disease today) or postponed until later in life (as in heart disease and various cancers).



S

Saturated fat
Fats that can raise blood cholesterol levels and have been linked to an increased risk of heart disease. Found primarily in animal foods (such as red meat, poultry, butter, cheese, ice cream, and whole milk), they are also present in tropical vegetable oils (such as coconut, palm, and palm kernel oils), which are solid at room temperature.

Screening test
A test or procedure used to detect disease in a person who does not have any symptoms of that disease.

Sign
Any objective evidence of disease. A sign can be detected by a person other than the affected individual. Gross blood in the stool is a sign of disease. It can be recognized by the patient, doctor, nurse, or others. In contrast, a symptom is, by its nature, subjective. Abdominal pain is a symptom. It is something only the patient can know

Stroke
An interruption of the blood supply to any part of the brain, resulting in damaged brain tissue. A stroke can cause physical problems such as paralysis, problems with thinking or speaking, and emotional problems.

Symptom
Any subjective evidence of disease. A symptom is a phenomenon that is experienced by an individual. Anxiety, lower back pain, and fatigue are all symptoms. They are sensations only the patient can perceive. In contrast, a sign is objective evidence of disease. A bloody nose is a sign. It is evident to the patient, doctor, nurse, and other observers.



T

Total cholesterol
Usually refers to the combined level of HDL and LDL cholesterol in the blood.

Trans unsaturated fats or transfats
More commonly referred to simply as ‘tranfats.’Fats that increase the risk of heart disease by both raising LDL (“bad”) cholesterol and lowering HDL (“good”) cholesterol.  A main component of shortening and hydrogenated oils, transunsaturated fats or transfats are common in French fries, potato chips, pies, cookies, crackers, and many other commercially made snack foods.



U

ur
Your

Unsaturated fats
Fats that can improve blood cholesterol levels and lower the risk of heart disease.  Healthy sources include: oil-based salad dressing, fatty fish, and avocados, as well as olive, canola, safflower, sunflower, corn, and soybean oils   Like all fats, unsaturated fats are high in calories.  If you increase the amount of unsaturated fats you eat, be mindful of how much food you eat overall, so you don’t gain weight.



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Lisa Fouladi Balance Ur Bod Nutrition Consultancy

Lisa, principle consultant and founder of balance ur bod nutrition consultancy is a qualified nutrition therapist (dip.ION), a Nutrition Therapy Council registered practitioner, and a current member of the British Association of Applied Nutrition and Nutrition Therapy (BANT) and is bound by their codes of ethics and practice. She is fully insured, and dedicated to continuous study of current research and industry developments through Continued Professional Development (CPD).

In keeping with her quest for knowledge, Lisa is currently enrolled in yet another degree program, an MSc at the University of London (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine) which she hopes to complete someday.

Although based in Zürich, Switzerland, she sees clients in the Geneva area, in Germany (Münster area) and in the UK (London and Windsor areas).

Lisa conducts one to one consultations with clients, advising on all aspects of nutrition and the effect food and lifestyle choices have on health and well being. Lisa works closely with her clients, assessing and identifying imbalances and individual needs, and supporting them in making the necessary dietary and lifestyle changes. She is deeply committed to supporting her client’s health through nutrition and stays at their side throughout the process.